Active gelation breaks time-reversal-symmetry of mitotic chromosome mechanics

First Authors Matthäus Mittasch
Authors Matthäus Mittasch, Anatol Fritsch, Michael Nestler, Juan M Iglesias Artola, Kaushikaram Subramanian, Heike Petzold, Mrityunjoy Kar, Axel Voigt, Moritz Kreysing
Corresponding Authors Moritz Kreysing
Last Authors Moritz Kreysing
Journal Name bioRxiv (bioRxiv)
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Article Number 296566
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Online Publication Date 2018-04-07
Abstract In cell division, mitosis is the phase in which duplicated sets of chromosomes are mechanically aligned to form the metaphase plate before being segregated in two daughter cells. Irreversibility is a hallmark of this process, despite the fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics being time symmetric. Here we show experimentally that mitotic chromosomes receive the arrow of time by time-reversal-symmetry breaking of the underlying mechanics in prometaphase. By optically inducing hydrodynamic flows within prophase nuclei, we find that duplicated chromatid pairs initially form a fluid suspension in the nucleoplasm: although showing little motion on their own, condensed chromosomes are free to move through the nucleus in a time-reversible manner. Actively probing chromosome mobility further in time, we find that this viscous suspension of chromatin transitions into a gel after nuclear breakdown. This gel state, in which chromosomes cannot be moved by flows, persists even when chromosomes start moving to form the metaphase plate. Complemented by minimal reconstitution experiments, our active intra-nuclear micro-rheology reveals time-reversal-symmetry breaking of chromosome mechanics to be caused by the transition from a purely fluid suspension into an active gel.
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DOI https://doi.org/10.1101/296566
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Created By thuem
Added Date 2018-04-13
Last Edited By thuem
Last Edited Date 2018-04-13 13:45:02.606
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