Convergent gene losses illuminate metabolic and physiological changes in herbivores and carnivores.

First Authors Nikolai Hecker
Authors Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Corresponding Authors Michael Hiller
Last Authors Michael Hiller
Journal Name Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A.)
Volume 116
Issue 8
Page Range 3036-3041
PubMed ID 30718421
WebOfScience Link WOS:000459074400042
Open Access false
Print Publication Date 2019-02-19
Online Publication Date
Abstract The repeated evolution of dietary specialization represents a hallmark of mammalian ecology. To detect genomic changes that are associated with dietary adaptations, we performed a systematic screen for convergent gene losses associated with an obligate herbivorous or carnivorous diet in 31 placental mammals. For herbivores, our screen discovered the repeated loss of the triglyceride lipase inhibitor PNLIPRP1, suggesting enhanced triglyceride digestion efficiency. Furthermore, several herbivores lost the pancreatic exocytosis factor SYCN, providing an explanation for continuous pancreatic zymogen secretion in these species. For carnivores, we discovered the repeated loss of the hormone-receptor pair INSL5-RXFP4 that regulates appetite and glucose homeostasis, which likely relates to irregular feeding patterns and constant gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, reflecting the reduced need to metabolize plant-derived xenobiotics, several carnivores lost the xenobiotic receptors NR1I3 and NR1I2 Finally, the carnivore-associated loss of the gastrointestinal host defense gene NOX1 could be related to a reduced gut microbiome diversity. By revealing convergent gene losses associated with differences in dietary composition, feeding patterns, and gut microbiomes, our study contributes to understanding how similar dietary specializations evolved repeatedly in mammals.
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DOI 10.1073/pnas.1818504116
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Created By hiller
Added Date 2018-12-22
Last Edited By verhegge
Last Edited Date 2019-03-08 10:57:15.808
Library ID 7300
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